Dentists diagnose and treat problems with a patient’s teeth, gums, and related parts of the mouth. They provide advice and instruction on taking care of teeth and gums and on diet choices that affect oral health.Dentists typically do the following:Remove decay from teeth and fill cavitiesRepair cracked or fractured teeth and remove teethStraighten teeth to correct bite issuesPlace sealants or whitening agents on teethAdminister anesthetics to keep patients from feeling pain during proceduresWrite prescriptions for antibiotics or other medicationsExamine x rays of teeth, gums, the jaw, and nearby areas for problemsMake models and measurements for dental appliances, such as dentures, to fit patientsTeach patients about diet, flossing, use of fluoride, and other aspects of dental careDentists use a variety of equipment, including x-ray machines, drills, mouth mirrors, probes, forceps, brushes, and scalpels. They also use lasers, digital scanners, and other computer technologies.Dentists in private practice also oversee a variety of administrative tasks, including bookkeeping and buying equipment and supplies. They employ and supervise dental hygienists, dental assistants, dental laboratory technicians, and receptionists.Most dentists are general practitioners and handle a variety of dental needs. Other dentists practice in one of nine specialty areas:Dental public health specialists promote good dental health and the prevention of dental diseases in specific communities.Endodontists perform root-canal therapy, by which they remove the nerves and blood supply from injured or infected teeth.Oral and maxillofacial radiologists diagnose diseases in the head and neck through the use of imaging technologies.Oral and maxillofacial surgeons operate on the mouth, jaws, teeth, gums, neck, and head, including procedures such as surgically repairing a cleft lip and palate or removing impacted teeth.Oral pathologists diagnose conditions in the mouth, such as bumps or ulcers, and oral diseases, such as cancer.Orthodontists straighten teeth by applying pressure to the teeth with braces or other appliances.Pediatric dentists focus on dentistry for children and special-needs patients.Periodontists treat the gums and bone supporting the teeth.Prosthodontists replace missing teeth with permanent fixtures, such as crowns and bridges, or with removable fixtures such as dentures.